DIALOG Information Services
files $150 million lawsuit against CAS,
charging violation of the
Sherman Antitrust Act for attempting to monopolize control of the chemical
CAS responds to DIALOG
lawsuit and countersues for $30 million, charging DIALOG with breach of
contract and fraud.
October: Tim Berners-Lee begins work on a hypertext GUI browser
on the NeXT environment. Coins the term "World Wide Web" as a name
for the program.
Web page, developed by Tim Berners-Lee, appears on the CERN (European
Organization for Nuclear Research)Web server. This program ran on
the NeXT operating system and not many people used it.
(short for "archiver") software (which indexes ftp sites) released by Peter
Deutsch, Alan Emtage, and Bill Heelan at McGill University.
(a worldwide directory of FTP sites) released by Peter Scott (Univ of Saskatchewan)
Database is made commercially available.
The CORE project, to create a prototype of an electronic
library of ACS journals, is established cooperatively by ACS, CAS,
and Cornell University.
US High Performance Computing Act (sponsored by Sen. Al Gore)
establishes the National Research and Education Network (NREN)
Wide Area Information Servers (WAIS),
invented by Brewster
Kahle, released by Thinking Machines Corporation. An indexing system
for documents that indexes the full text of the documents, and scores searches
on the basis of the relevance of its vocabulary to the search terms.
released by Paul Lindner and Mark P. McCahill from the Univ of Minnesota.
This an easy-to-use menu system for exploring the Internet. Named
for the Univ. of Minnesota mascot.
January: Internet Society is established.
a gopherspace search tool, is released by Univ of Nevada. This gopher-based
search engine worked with an index of gopher menus around the world and
was the "work-horse" of early users (including librarians) of the Internet.
The name supposedly stood for Very Easy Rodent-Oriented Netwide Index to
Computerized Archives but more likely matched the earlier archie and jughead
names, referring to comic strip characters.
April: Finnish "ERWISE"
GUI client for X released.
May: Pei Wei's (Univ. of California, Berkeley) Viola
GUI browser for X test version released.
July: WWW client software released by CERN
November: First sites (about 23 servers) appear on the World
DIALOG and CAS settle lawsuit and promise further
cooperation; terms not disclosed.
March: WWW (Port 80 HTTP) traffic measures 0.1% of NSF backbone
February: NCSA (National Center for Supercomputer Applications)
releases first version of "Mosaic
for X" developed by Marc Andreessen.
April: CERN declares that WWW technology would be freely
available to anyone for development.
September: WWW (Port 80 HTTP) traffic
measures 1% of NSF backbone traffic. NCSA releases working versions
of Mosaic for all common platforms: X, PC/Windows and Macintosh.
November: First webcam, XCoffee,
December: first extensive publicity (New York Times, etc.) on WWW.
US National Information Infrastructure Act.
March: Marc Andreessen and colleagues leave NCSA to form
"Mosaic Communications Corp., later Netscape Communications.
May: First International
WWW Conference, CERN, Geneva.
October: World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) founded.
a client server for scientists, is marketed by
CAS Registry System records over 1 million new substances
this year (Weisgerber, 1997).
CAS begins Internet coverage of chemical science resources
on the Internet that are only available in electronic form.
Easy opens World Wide Web access to a set of STN files.
September: Domain name (.com, .gov., etc.) registration is
now fee-based, except for .edu and .gov. Previously subsidized by NSF.
ACS creates ChemCenter,
a web service to access a wide variety of chemical information. Includes
full text of 26 ACS journals.
US Communications Decency Act (CDA) becomes law. This law
prohibits distribution of indecent materials over the Net. Most of the
law is later declared unconstitutional by the US Supreme Court.
Brewster Kahle co-founds the Internet
At the end of the year, the Registry file contains 17.2 million
substances. The Registry database contains over 23 million names.
SCIENCE IN THE 20TH CENTURY