First known use of optical coincidence cards for literature
searching by R. Preddek (Germany). Various names for the name of the optical
coincidence cards, by language are: French: fiches superposables; German:
sichtlochkarten; English/US: Peek-a-Boo, optical coincidence, feature cards,
cards; English/UK: optical coincidence and Batten-Cordonnier (Reichman,
develops an analog machine that uses gears powered by electricity (Emard,
an electro-mechanical circuit design principle in its new multiplying punch
(later labeled the 601). By this time, IBM is the clear leader over Remington
Rand, producing units in a 16 to 1 ratio over Rand. Arthur L. Norberg (1990)
implied that this was because of the electromechanical nature of IBM’s
IIB becomes the Institut International de Documentation (IID).
University of Chicago's Graduate Library School is established
and publishes first issue of Library
Quarterly, a journal to be devoted to the "scientific" aspects
of the field of library science (Buckland,
Samuel C. Bradford, mathematician and librarian at the Science
Museum in London, develops his "law
of scattering" regarding differences in demand for scientific journals.
This work influences bibliometrics and citation analysis of scientific
15 November: Davis,
Seidell (National Institute of Health (NIH)), R. H. Draeger (Naval
Medical School), and Claribel R. Barnett (Librarian, USDA) announce the
beginning of Bibliofilm
Service, operating out of the USDA
Library. The Service offers to provide microfilm copies of the literature
of science as well as microfilm readers (Schultz
& Garwig, 1969).
A $15,000 grant from the Chemical Foundation allows Watson
establish the Documentation Institute as part of Science
Service and to operate the Auxiliary Publication Service for science
librarians. These initiatives lead indirectly to the establishment, in
1937, of the American
Documentation Institute (ADI), the predecessor of the American
Society for Information Science (ASIS).
develops original ideas for a mechanized literature searching machine.
Reported use of IBM punched card equipment at Boston Public
Library. (Reported in Ethel Fair's Jan. 15 article in Library Journal.)
creates the Auxiliary Publication Service of Science
Service focusing on dissemination of scientific information via
microfilm. Announces to journal editors how the publication process will
work. The Bibliofilm Service (which is officially moved to Science Service
in January, 1936) begins the Auxiliary Publication Service to promote three
basic concepts: a network of libraries to cooperatively support the copying
of articles; one "big journal" of scientific literature; the creation of
a "world brain" through acquiring and indexing the knowledge of the world
(Schultz & Garwig, 1969). A microfilm
development lab is established in the USDA
Library and is used for the technical operations of the Bibliofilm
Service. Estimated to cost about $25,000 (Redmond,
ALA Commitee on Documentary Reproduction is formed to study
and promote documentary reproduction. Later publishes the Journal of
Documentary Reproduction in 1938 (Shera
& Cleveland, 1972).
February: Ralph Parker, University of Texas at Austin, uses
punched card equipment for library circulation work (Emard,
1976; Becker, 1976).
Committee on Scientific Aids to Learning is established in
the NAS. This committee is influential in the study and development of
technical innovations of the time, such as microphotography and business
machines (Buckland, 1996).
13 March: Group headed by Davis,
Service, NAS, forms the American
Documentation Institute. Membership is restricted to member organizations
August: World Congress on Documentation is held in Paris.
US attendees include: Davis
and Herman Fussler.
This meeting features H.G. Wells' presentation on the "World Brain." Otlet
and Goldberg also make presentations (Buckland,
December: Biological Abstracts suspends publication
because of lack of funds. Resumes publication five months later (Steere,
Shannon applies the principles of Boolean logic and binary algeba
to the design of electronic circuits (Smith,
IID becomes the Federation
International de Documentation (FID).
Journal of Documentary Reproduction begins publication
(ceases in 1943) (Shera & Cleveland, 1972).
Conrad Weygand, a German chemist, proposes a method for classifying
chemical reactions based on the breaking and forming of bonds during a
22 October: Chester
Carlson makes the first xerographic image in his lab in Astoria, Queens,
ALA publishes Emily Miller Danton's edited book, The Library
of Tommorrow. (Includes Frederick Keppel's essay on bibliographic searching
using Hollerith cards.)
Batten (UK) develops the first large scale system using feature (optical
coincidence) cards for use in indexing patent literature. Much of the later
interest in optical coincidence cards stems from his writings about them
Labs produces the first remotely operational, electromagnetic relay
calculator. Name: Bell Labs Model 1 (Stibetz Complex Calculator).
constructs a prototype of the Microfilm
Rapid Selector (MRS)
at MIT. Uses
only A=A search logic. Is announced publicly in 1940. Uses photoelectric
cells. Machine is generally considered a failure (Jahoda,
teaching a course on microfilm at the Graduate Library School, University
of Chicago (Buckland, 1996).
France's Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique is
established with chemical information science among its fields of research.
SCIENCE IN THE 20TH CENTURY