CA adds annual
formula index, first to be used in an abstract journal. These formula indexes
did not indicate molecular structures, or functional groups, but served
as very broad screens for searching purposes (Perry,
Kent, & Berry, 1956).
Herbert E. Soper (UK) receives US patent for subject based
optical coincidence system for use in statistical recording (Thompson,
commissions on chemical nomenclature to formulate rules for naming chemical
compounds systematically (Perry, et al., 1956).
Service, at the National
Academy of Science in Washington, DC, is established to disseminate
scientific information. Edward
E. Slosson is the first director (Schultz
& Garwig, 1969).
CA publishes its first chemical formula index (Weisgerber,
Committee on Intellectual Cooperation, under auspices of the League
of Nations, is established (Werdel & Adams,
April: The Union of American Biological Societies
is established with principal purpose of publishing a unified abstracting
service for bio-sciences (Steere, 1976).
French patent for use of subject based optical coincident
system is issued to Bourgeaud and Liber. System incorporates some aspects
of Boolean searching. This patent forms the basis of the J.
Cordonnier system of aspect cards (Thompson,
Eighth edition of Gmelin Handbuch der Anorganischen Chemie
published, under sponsorship of Deutsche Chemische Gesellschaft.
The Powers Accounting Machine Company introduces a tabulator
with alphabetic capacity (Norberg, 1990).
First use of a facsimile transmission between NY and Cleveland.
Results are printed in The New York Times (Emard,
November: Rockefeller Foundation
makes grant of $350,000 to cover expenses for a ten year period for creation
of Biological Abstracts. Rockefeller eventually contributes a total
of $723,000 for the publication (Steere, 1976).
By this time, the use of tabulating machines has achieved
a conventional makeup that is to stay pretty much the same until the 1950ís:
punch, tabulator, sorter, and, occasionally, a verifier, interpreter, and
printing tabulator. Almost every large company has a "Hollerith"
department by this time.
Alfred Perkins (England) receives a US patent for his edge-notched
card (previously patented in the UK; not sure of date). Earlier edge-notched
cards are crude compared to his. This is the first generally applicable
system. US rights to the patent are sold to the McBee Corporation in 1932
Paul Otlet (Belgium) and Robert Goldschmidt (Belgium) describe
the advantages of a microphotographic library consisting of a portable
cabinet and a pocket sized viewing device capable of holding as many as
18,759 books of 350 pages each (Buckland,
Goldberg (Germany) demonstrates microfilm reduction potential by placing
entire text of the Bible 50 times over on one square inch of film (Buckland,
Carnegie Corporation funds
the establishment of the Graduate Library School at the University of Chicago.
Principal purpose of the school is to be research oriented and to operate
a Ph.D. program in library science (Buckland,
Slosson propose a method for disseminating information via a "miniaturephotographic"
process. Davis (?) coins the term microfilm (according to Schultz
& Garwig, 1969).
British Chemical Abstracts begins. Becomes British
Chemical and Physiological Abstracts in 1938 and British Abstracts
In the United States Biological Abstracts is first
published (Steere, 1976).
Emmanuel Goldberg (Germany) develops process for applying
electronic signals to selection of data on microfilm. US patent is applied
for in 1928 and is granted 29 December 1931. This development has significant
influences on work of Vannevar
Bush in early work on the Rapid Selector (Jahoda,
Nippon Kagaku Soran, a Japanese chemical abstracts
journal, is published.
International Federation of
Library Associatons (IFLA) is established. This is a direct descendant
of the International Library and Bibliographic Committee, founded in 1926
(Werdel & Adams, 1976).
The Powers Accounting Machine Company becomes Remington
SCIENCE IN THE 20TH CENTURY