Interviewing Potential Staff

By: Shae Kristine Tetterton

Table of Contents


Getting Started: Pre-Interview Strategies

Types of Interviews

    One-On-One Interviews
    Panel/Board Interviews
    Impromptu Interviews
    Telephone Interviews
    Dinner Interviews
    Group Interviews
    Stress Interviews
    Second Interviews or Follow-Up Interviews
Types of Questions
    Close-Ended Questions
    Open-Ended Questions
    Past-Performance Questions
    Negative-Balance Questions
    Negative Confirmation
    Reflexive Questions
    Mirror Statements
    Loaded Questions
    Judgement-Call Questions
    Half-Right Reflexives
    Leading Questions
    Question Layering
Common Questions Used to Hire Librarians

Illegal Questions

Candidate's Questions

Emerging Interviewing Techniques

    Mass Interviewing
    Behavior-Based Interviewing
    High-Tech Interviewing
Interviewing Pitfalls




The cost of hiring the wrong person can be one of the most expensive decisions made in an organization.  It is estimated that each hiring error committed by a manager can cost the organization at least twice an employee’s annual salary.  This figure is made up by the cost of time plus the cost of other projects that get put on hold for the hiring process.  It can also cost productivity, advertising, recruitment fees, training, possibly severance pay, outplacement, unemployment insurance, low employee morale, and high stress.  The bottom line is no organization can afford to make the mistake of hiring the wrong person.  So, how does one avoid making these mistakes?  That’s where this chapter comes in.  This chapter will examine the strategies that can be taken to successfully hire.  It will evaluate popular interviewing techniques and give advice on the types of questions and types of interviews being used.  Due to the fact that interviewing is the key element in hiring, this chapter will specifically target interviewing potential staff.  Other elements of the hiring process, such as recruiting strategies and training, will only be mentioned briefly.  So, let’s get started!

Getting Started: Pre-Interview Strategies

Begin this process by conducting a job analysis to determine the qualifications needed for the position.  Such qualifications should include education, previous job experience, technical skills, personality and leadership potential.  Now is the time to reevaluate the job description itself and modify it if necessary.  If you have been unsuccessful in filling a particular position, it may be time to rethink the position itself.

After the job analysis, you should look over the resumes.  This can be a time consuming task.  Therefore, several experts suggest reading resumes in teams.  If you choose this path, though, make sure those in a team are people who have worked successfully together in the past.  Otherwise, you will only be wasting time and energy.  Advise the teams that they do not have to come to a consensus about a candidate.  The purpose behind the team approach is to ensure that all aspects of the candidate are evaluated.  In any case, resumes must be examined carefully.  Always look for red flags such as unexplained gaps in employment history, use of the word “attended” rather than “graduated” and a lack of detail about past jobs.

Now you can begin the task of writing your interview questions.  Keep in mind that you should have an identical list that you ask all candidates.  This will give you a platform on which to compare candidates answers to the same questions.  In addition to these standard questions, though, you should also ask tailored questions for each candidate.  These questions should be designed to highlight that candidate’s qualifications and experience.  Always avoid prejudicial questions, such as questions about race or religion.  This issue will be explored more fully when we talk about illegal questions.

Finally, you must decide what type or types of interview(s) you are going to conduct.  Some institutions have policies about this.  Therefore, always consult with human resources before proceeding.  If you have the option to choose, you can select from a variety of interview types.

Types of Interviews

In the past, employment interviews were usually between the human resource manager and the prospective employee.  “Today, employment interviews can look very different depending on the organization and the needs of the employer”  (“The Interview Game”).  Before interviewing, you must decide what type of interview is best for your organization and for you as the employer.  Here are some examples of types of interviews:

One-On-One Interviews—These are the least time consuming interviews.  One person interviews the candidate and then makes the hiring decision.  These interviews are generally informal in nature and usually involve a series of prepared questions.  In this type interview, always remember to maintain eye contact with the potential employee and note that it is okay to be flexible with your list of prepared questions.

Panel/Board Interviews—These interviews are very popular today.  Governments and non-profit organizations typically use them.  It is also becoming more commonplace in smaller organizations.  Two or more individuals interview applicants.  In most cases, these two or more individuals are in one room interviewing the applicant.  These individuals then come to a consensus about who should be hired for the position.  If the interviews are all occurring in one room, remember that it is important that each member of the panel listen to the interviewee at all times.  Talking amongst panel members can be very distracting to the candidate and others may miss important information.  If, on the other hand, these interviews are being performed separately, ensure that interviewers are not asking the same questions.  Review questions in a team before breaking up to conduct your separate interviews with the candidate.

Impromptu Interviews—This type of interview is most common at job fairs.  On occasion employers will also call potential employees on the spot.  The interview is designed to extract general information and is typically unstructured in nature.  This interview can give the interviewer the information necessary to determine whether the candidate should be brought in for an on-site interview.

Telephone Interviews—Telephone screening can be one of the most critical steps in the interview process.  This interview generally serves as the preliminary contact, the interview before the interview.  It is used to gather initial information that can then be expanded upon at the on-site interview.  It can also be used to determine whether the candidate should be brought in for a more formal interview.  Sometimes these interviews are impromptu and unstructured.  More often, though, they are and should be arranged interviews with structure and purpose.  Keep in mind that “hiring managers are investing more time in preparing for and conducting telephone screenings to maximize the effectiveness of face-to-face interviews”  (“Telephone Instrumental in Screening Job Candidates”).

Dinner Interviews—Again, these interviews can be structured (which is the recommended method) or unstructured, formal or informal.  These interviews are generally used to open up discussion for “friendly chat” that will assist the interviewer in getting to know the interviewee on a more personal note.

Group Interviews—Do not get this type of interview confused with the panel interviews.  In this case, a panel of candidates (not supervisors) is brought together.  They are typically brought together to solve a problem.  This tests their ability to work in a team environment.  These interviews can be extremely useful, providing information about how the candidates interact with others and how they work to solve a problem.  In essence, this type of interview is designed to test interpersonal and teamwork skills.  It is also suggested that during this type interview that you take the candidates around to meet staff.  Always get feedback from staff about who stood out to them and why.

Stress Interviews—These type interviews are being used less and less.  They can be useful if the job being filled will require the candidate to perform under a tremendous amount of stress.  They judge the candidate’s reactions to such things as waiting a considerable amount of time for the interview to begin, lack of rapport building and an unfriendly interviewer.  This type of interview is not generally recommended but could be useful in assessing an individual’s ability to deal with surprises and stress.

Second Interviews or Follow-Up Interviews—These interviews let the candidate know that you are seriously considering them.  It is suggested that you not invite someone for a second interview if you feel lukewarm about him or her.  It could be seen as misleading.  These interviews are simply designed to probe more deeply into the applicant’s experience and personality.  This interview is designed to ensure that the fit is good.  That is to say, this interview allows you to ensure a proper fit between this candidate and the job, between this candidate and the environment of the organization.

In the end, it is your call on what type of interview to perform.  Decide which interview you are most comfortable with and which is most appropriate to the situation.  Team or panel interviews are always recommended simply because they provide multiple viewpoints.  In addition, second interviews are also recommended.  Due to the fact that most interviews are only an hour to two hours in length, a second interview or just a longer interview will provide more insight into the character of the candidate.

Time is an important factor, perhaps the most important.  Decide on a time for the interview.  Will it be one hour in length or are you going to spend the entire day with the candidate?  This is up to you but it does make a difference given the situation and your preference.  Sometimes taking extra time with each candidate pays off in the long run when the right person is hired.

Another key factor in interviewing is what type of questions you will ask.  Therefore, the following will offer insight into the types of questions that can be asked as well as what questions should not be asked.

Types of Questions

The types of questions will determine the type of information that is elicited from the interview.  Therefore, it is important that you choose the right type of questions to ask potential employees.  You may choose to ask only a certain type of question or you may mix types of questions to form a more comprehensive interview.  Following are examples of question formats:

Close-Ended Questions—These are the most common questions asked in interviews but also the most commonly abused.  This is because close-ended questions only ask for a yes or no response.  These questions are only useful when you are looking for a commitment from the candidate, such as when they can start work, or when you are seeking to refresh your memory from earlier questions.  These can be used to start off the conversation but remember that they will not provide detail for you.  Examples of these questions include:
 Can you start on Monday?
 You were with ________ for ten years?
 Can you work under pressure?
You can see that the first question is useful if looking for a commitment.  The second is useful for verifying employment with a certain company.  The final question, though, is an example of why close-ended questions are not appropriate when trying to glean valuable information from someone.  Simply put, no one is going to say no to a question like this and there is no way to know if they are sincere or not without further detail.

Open-Ended Questions—These questions are the opposite of close-ended questions.  With these, the candidate cannot respond with a yes or no only.  They must provide explanations and examples with open-ended questions.  These questions are recommended because they keep the interviewee talking and the interviewer listening.  These questions start with the following:

 I’m interested in hearing about . . .
 I’m curious to learn . . .
 Would you share with me . . .
Past-Performance Questions—These questions are particularly useful if you choose to conduct a Behavior Based Interview (discussed later).  They are based on the idea that past actions predict future behavior.  The focus is on requesting specific examples of past behavior.  They are open-ended in nature.  These questions usually begin with the following:
 Tell me about a time when . . .
 Share with me an experience when . . .
 Give me an example of . . .
These questions should be asked early in the interview.  This will send a message to the interviewee.  It will say that he or she is expected to give detailed examples about his or her past experiences.  Therefore, this type of questioning will give the interviewee less opportunity to pull the wool over your eyes as the interviewing process continues.

Negative-Balance Questions—These questions are essential in diminishing the halo-effect.  The halo-effect is when you become so impressed with one aspect of the candidate’s personality or experience that you shut out the possibility of any negatives.  Therefore, when you start to see that halo appear over their head, it is time for a negative-balance question.  As the name suggestions, this question will attempt to turn the tables on the candidate and provide you with a balanced perspective.  Some examples of these questions follow:

That’s very impressive.  Was there ever an occasion when things didn’t work out so well?
 Now can you give me an example of something in this area you are not so proud of?
Again, these questions are open-ended in nature and generally indicate past-performance as well.

Negative Confirmation—This technique is used when you have moved on from the negative-balance questions.  It is only used when you are disturbed by an answer and you want to receive confirmation that what you heard is what you heard.  For instance, if a candidate tells you that he went behind his supervisor’s back, you will want to know if this was a one-time happening.  You want to know this person is not backstabbing or manipulative.  To find out, ask something like:

 That’s quite interesting.  Let’s talk about another time you had to . . .
If the candidate provides successive examples of poor behavior, then you will have confirmed these negative traits.  If the candidate proves that this was a one time event, you can feel more confident that the situation in question was an exception.  Either way, you can then move on to other questions or end the interview promptly if you must.

Reflexive Questions—To end the conversation or to move it along, reflexive questions are the key.  Also, if you feel you are losing control of the interview, these questions can be helpful.  These questions can be used to interrupt a babbling candidate or to wrap up the conversation.  Some examples include:

 With time so short, I think it would be valuable to move onto another area, don’t you?
These questions generally end with phrases like: Don’t you?  Couldn’t you?  Wouldn’t you?  Didn’t you? Can’t you? Aren’t you?  The candidate’s reflex will be to agree and you can move on.

Mirror Statements—These statements allow you to probe a little more deeply into the candidate.  It is used in conjunction with the ever-powerful tool of silence.  The key with this technique is to repeat the essence of the candidate’s comments.  A good example would be “So, whenever you found yourself two hours late you would always decide to leave two hours early to make up for it?”  Following such a question, you should sit back and wait for the interviewees to either hang themselves or save themselves.

Loaded Questions—As the name suggests, these questions are full of meaning.  In essence they are intended to play games with the candidate.  Therefore, they are not recommended.  They would include things such as:

 Which do you think is the lesser evil, video poker or the lottery?
Do not get these questions confused with judgement-call questions, which can be very valuable in an interview.

Judgement-Call Questions—These questions are intended to probe into the candidate’s decision-making approaches.  The question should recall a real-life scenario to be effective.  For instance:

 I’m curious to know what you would do if . . .
 What would be your approach to a situation where . . .
These questions are often confused with loaded questions simply because they can be tricky.  Try to make the distinction, though.  Loaded questions are used to play games and generally have no bearing on the job to be filled.  Therefore, they are often illegal.  Judgement-call questions are designed for a different purpose, to determine the applicant’s approaches to certain situations.

Half-Right Reflexives—These questions are tricky in nature but are effective in weeding out the candidates who say yes to everything, who resist giving information and who are incurably tongue-tied.  The technique is to make a statement and then ask the interviewee to agree.  These questions are always guaranteed to provide striking revelations about the interviewee.  An example would be:

 I’ve always felt that tenure track is the only way to go, haven’t you?
These are very similar to leading questions and are generally not recommended unless the candidate is not giving you much to work with.

Leading Questions—If you want the candidate to tell you exactly what you want to hear, then use these questions.  It is not recommended, though, if you actually want to hire a competent individual.  Leading questions indicate the correct answer.  They are interviewees dream questions, ones in which they do not have to dig deep to give the right answer.  Thus, they can be a nightmare for hiring managers in the long run.  The only time they can be useful is when the candidate’s beliefs or personality has been established.  They should not be used early on in the interview process, if they must be used at all.  Do not confuse this style of questioning with the half-right reflexive style.  Examples include the following:

We’re a fast-growing company and there is constant pressure to meet deadlines and satisfy our every-increasing list of customers.  How do you handles stress?
We are a company that believes the customer is always right.  How do you feel about that?
* Question Layering—Layering the types of questions you use in the interview is the best approach.  Take a few lessons from reporters who do not just ask, “can you handle stress?” but also “how do you handle stress?”  They also ask for examples of times when have you handled stress.  Essentially, reporters ask who, what, when, where, why and how.  Try to recall the days of High School English.  This approach is still useful, especially in interviews for potential hires.  Do not be afraid to explore the entire gambit of question types.  This is not to say that you should be asking questions that do not relate and bouncing all over the place.  Rather, follow up a close-ended question with an open-ended one.  Use mirror statements to ensure that you are on the same track with the candidate.  Extract examples and stories from the interviewees.  This type of questioning gives you more freedom and allows you to be much more thorough.  Don’t limit yourself.  Even if you are prone to ask mostly past-performance questions, make sure you throw in a few judgement-call questions or mirror statements.  You will not be sorry.
Common Questions Used to Hire Librarians

1. Why did you decide to enter the field of library and information science?
2. How would you characterize your supervisory style?
3. What are the personal characteristics and qualities that you would bring to this position that would be particularly helpful in fulfilling the responsibilities of this position?
4. What appeals to you about this position?
5. How will your other experiences outside of librarianship aid you in this position?
6. What would you say that you learned from your college/graduate school experiences that you see being carried over to your life today?
7. What are some of the problems you encounter in doing your job?  Which one frustrates you the most?  What do you usually do about it?
8. Tell me about a time when you had work problems or stresses that were difficult for you.
9. What important goals have you set in the past, and how successful have you been in working toward their accomplishment?
10. Are you a person who likes to “try new things,” or “stay with regular routines”?  Give an example.

NOTE: To gain access to other commonly asked questions, visit the following web site:

Illegal Questions

When developing your questions, you must always note that there are a number of questions seen as “illegal.”  Asking them could result in lawsuits.  Therefore, I have included several examples below:

1. Asking if someone is authorized to work in the U.S. is acceptable.  Asking if they or their parents are U.S. citizens is not acceptable.
2. It is legal to ask candidates if they are over the age of eighteen.  It is not considered legal to ask them how old they are or when their birthday is.
3. Do not ask a potential hire if they are married or if they plan on having a family.  Instead, ask them if they would be willing to relocate if necessary.  If traveling or overtime is an anticipated aspect of the job, it is okay to ask them if they are willing to travel or work overtime.
4. Asking a candidate to list professional or trade groups that they belong to is accepted.  Asking what social clubs or organizations they belong to is not considered relevant and is subsequently considered illegal.
5. Be very careful when it comes to disabled candidates.  You are not allowed to ask them about medical history, operations or their family’s health.  The only thing that can be done is to require a medical exam, but only if everyone else is required to undergo the same exam.
6. It is legal to ask if someone has been convicted of a certain crime if it relates in some way to the performance of the job in question.  It is not legal to ask about arrests.
7. If one of the candidates has been in the military, then ask them what branch or what type of training they received.  Do not ask them if they were honorably discharged.

Do not take chances when it comes to interview questions.  If the questions themselves are questionable, do not ask them.  Always make sure your questions are relevant to the job in question and you should be okay.  It is best, though, to be aware of legal issues in the hiring process.  Therefore, it is recommended that you consult with human resources (they generally know all the hiring protocols) and/or a legal representative of the organization.

Also, document document document.  Always document your reasons why you did not hire someone.  This way if someone calls wanting to know why they were not hired, you will have a legitimate answer for them.

Candidate’s Questions

You must be aware that the questions candidates ask can make your hiring decision.  Some candidates will ask the basic questions about salary and benefits.  Others will ask “filler” questions that deal with the founding of the company or the number of employees in the company.  You must watch out for those who ask no questions at all.  “Simply put, the questions posed by candidates should reveal critical insights into their values, goals and aspirations as well as their analytical abilities and business knowledge”  (“Questions Make the Candidate”).

What you should expect to hear from the top performers are either emotional or technical questions.  Emotional questions are the best because they look for the people-element in your response.  They also show that the candidate has done their research about the company and now wants to gain a little personal insight, such as “how would you define the personality of your organization?”.  Candidates asking for success stories are not necessarily trying to butter you up.  On the contrary, they are probably just trying to ascertain a personal account of success associated with this company or organization.  Emotional queries can include the following:

 What criteria make someone successful in your department?
 What kind of mentoring and training style do you have?
 What two or three things make your company unique?
The second type of question you should be aware of is the technical question.  Technical questions will be asked of you to clarify aspects of the position or the company.  They are exactly what they sound like, technical.  For instance:
 What’s your department’s current cost-per-hire?
 How many projected openings are you estimating for the next year?
 What are the real expected work hours per day?
Keep both these types in mind when considering a candidate.  Your decision to hire should never been based entirely on the answers they give you in the designated “interview room.”  Hiring decisions should also consider the remarks made outside the office environment, such as at lunch or dinner.  Most importantly, they should consider the questions asked by the candidate of you. As Paul Falcone says in his article, “bear in mind that emotional queries frame the entire picture, whereas technical questions only color the background.  Look for candidates who appreciate the critical role of emotional issues in the interviewing process. . .”

Interviewing Techniques

Now that we have discussed types of interviews and interview questions, let us move on to some of the emerging techniques for interviewing.

Mass Interviewing—This technique is used primarily when the employers have little time to hire someone.  So, they interview all at once.  Some people call this the “blitzkrieg” tactic.  There are naturally differing opinions about this technique but in general it has its place given the right situation and right interviewer.  This technique makes it much easier to keep track of the candidates.  When you see one or two applicants one week and three or four the next, it becomes very difficult to keep track of them.  This is why the first candidates are rarely chosen.  The downfall to this process is the fatigue factor.  Interviewers find themselves fatigued by the end of a day or week of interviews.  Overall, this technique should be considered if time is of the essence and when a decision needs to be made fast.  Do not be too hasty, though.  Sometimes extra time spent in interviewing and consideration proves itself very valuable.

Behavior-Based Interviewing—This is by far the most popular form of interviewing in place currently.  It encourages candidates to tell stories that will give insight into their past performance and personality.  It is also called story-telling interviewing.  This technique begins with the basics: job analyses and skills identification.  It goes a step further, though, by breaking skills down into three classes: content skills, functional skills, and adaptive skills.  Content skills include knowledge gained through education or training.  Functional skills include management skills, organization and communication skills.  Finally, adaptive skills highlight the candidate’s ability to fit into the organization.  Of the three skill sets, functional skills are most important in the BBI technique.  BBI is based on the premise that past performance is the best indicator of future success.  “Over the past fifteen to twenty years, research has shown BBI interviewing to be three to seven times more effective in predicting job performance success compared to traditional one-on-one interviews”  (“Story-Telling Interviews: Using Behavior-Based Interviewing”).  This technique works because it is structured and is focussed on job-related skills.

High-Tech Interviewing—Some high-tech tools are making it easier for employers to narrow down the pool of applicants and select the right candidates.  For instance, some organizations are now using automated answering machines that describe the position, company, work hours and location.  In turn, the automated voice will give applicants the opportunity to answer questions about their education, work experience and other basic information by using buttons on the telephone keypad.  This shortens the screening process significantly but weeding out applicants who lack the essential skills listed in the job description.
Another technique involved is computer-assisted candidate screening.  During this process, candidates speak with a tele-recruiter.  It works much the same way the automated voice technique mentioned above.
In addition to these techniques, videoconferencing is transforming the world of interviewing.  It is particularly useful when scheduling conflicts do not allow the interviewee and interviewer to meet in person.  They are also frequently used as preliminary interviews before paying expenses to bring in a candidate.  Many candidates prefer this method to telephone interviews because you can at least see who you are speaking to.  Keep in mind, though, that with conference calls or videoconferencing there can be a voice delay on both ends.
As the Internet itself becomes more popular, it will inevitably become more popular as a marketplace for jobs.  We are already seeing virtual interviews on the net as well as job banks where job seekers deposit resumes that will then be examined by a variety of employers.  Increasingly, the Internet is also being used to screen applicants.  For instance, some firms require candidates to complete an electronic application, provide writing samples and answer a series of multiple-choice questions via the Internet.
Technology will continue to change everything, particularly the way the hiring process works.  It is important to keep up with these trends and determine if one of them will work effectively for you.

Interviewing Pitfalls

To avoid making mistakes in the interview, you should be aware of common pitfalls.  Following is a list of common mistakes that can be made in the interview:

1. Don’t forget to take notes.  Word-by-word transcription is not recommended, though, for it will stifle the interviewee and keep the interviewer from listening to the answers.
2. Don’t give away the answers to the questions (ex: leading questions).
3. Don’t always schedule interviews very early or very late in the day.  Make interviewing a priority.  Don’t sandwich interviews in between other meetings or tasks.
4. Write out a list of questions before the interview.  Develop a structure for the interview.  Be flexible within the structure.
5. Give candidates ample time to respond to questions.  Don’t be afraid of silence.
6. Do not cross-examine the interviewee.  Being alerts to inconsistencies in applicants’ responses is important but do not turn the interview into a challenge to find faults.
7. Don’t look for a hidden meaning in everything the applicant says.  Don’t psychoanalyze.  Just take their words at face value.
8. Always check references.  This is a fundamental step.
9. Frame your questions around the job descriptions.
10. Probe for details from candidates if you feel you are not getting a complete answer.
11. Do not allow one stunning quality to overshadow the potential red flags. (Halo-effect)
12. Avoid standard questions.  Be creative.
13. Listen carefully to the candidate’s responses.
14. Don’t lose control of the interview.
15. Don’t dominate the interview.  An interview should be a two-way conversation.
16. Don’t try to intimidate the candidates.  Establishing rapport with the candidate will be impossible if you act so superior that they cannot be themselves.
17. Don’t be afraid to be persistent about getting the answers you need.
18. Don’t overlook the candidate’s communications skills.  Ask for details of points to test the candidate’s thoughtfulness and ability to be articulate.
19. Don’t discount enthusiasm.  “All attributes and skills being equal, the one who demonstrates the most desire is the best hire” (“The Art and Science of Conducting a Job Interview”).
20. Don’t pre-hire.  Don’t base your decision on appearance alone.  Too often interviewers decide on someone before they even open their mouth.  Intuition will not ensure the proper candidate.
21. Establish a rating system based on candidates’ experience, education, intelligence, professional appearance and communication skills.  You may also attempt to rate the candidates’ motivation and enthusiasm.  By documenting your rating scale for each candidate, you will be able to keep track of all candidates and your first impression of them.  Too often the first candidates are forgotten.
22. If you feel you will rush the interviewing process due to time constraints, you may consider hiring a staffing service that has the time to be more thorough.

There are many other pitfalls to consider but these are the basics.  Overall, you must plan and prioritize.  Without a solid plan or areas of evaluation, you will go into that interview with no real idea of what you are looking for, what the company needs or how to glean the most important information from the candidate. Also, be consistent.  The plan should be the same for each candidate to ensure that you will be able to compare equally impressive applicants.  Finally, go with the interviewing styles or techniques you feel most comfortable with.  If you are comfortable, making the interviewee comfortable will be less of a chore.


In the end remember that you must live with the hiring decision you make.  In turn, a bad hiring decision will reflect poorly on you.  Therefore, it is essential that you look at each interview as the interview of your life.  Give each interview equal value, even if you are more interested in another candidate.  After all, it could be that the candidate ranked #3 going into the interview that turns into #1 after the interview.  This can only happen, though, if you keep your eyes and ears open.  Objectivity and observation are the keys to success along with a well thought out plan.  Look at the research, keep up with the trends and determine what is best for you and your organization.  This chapter provides only the basics to get you started.  Therefore, I have provided a number of article citations in my bibliography.  All of these articles were read prior to the creation of the chapter but not all were referenced within this document.  I would recommend all of them.  They are short and to the point and provide valuable information.


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This document has been created by Shae Kristine Tetterton while engaged as a student at the University of South Carolina’s College of Library and Information Science.  A special thanks goes to for the background graphics.  Questions and comments can be referred to