1800 - 1825
1825 - 1850
1850 - 1875
1875 - 1900
Jöns Jakob Berzelius proposes a system of
in which elements are represented by the first letters of their names.
Compounds are represented by these letters with superscripts indicating
combining weights, which in turn suggest the number of atoms combining.
Thomas Thomson begins an annual retrospective
review of chemical
literature in his Annals of Philosophy, a practice later
by other editors like Berzelius.
Leopold Gmelin publishes
of his Handbuch der Anorganischen Chemie.
The Pharmacopoeia of the United States is
establishing standard English and Latin names for drugs.
In Germany Pharmaceutisches Centralblatt is
as the first chemistry-related abstracts journal. Becomes Chemisches-Pharmaceutisches
Centralblatt in 1850 and Chemisches Zentralblatt in 1856.
Deutsche Chemische Gesellschaft assumes responsibility for publication
Justus Liebig acquires Annalen der Pharmacie.
later changes to Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie and, most
to European Journal of Organic Chemistry.
The Chemical Society of London is established.
Quarterly Journal of the Chemical Society of
(later, Journal of the Chemical Society) is first published. In
1871 it begins including abstracts of the chemical literature.
The American Association for the Advancement of
is founded. It includes a section devoted to chemistry.
The Société Chimique de Paris is
Begins publication of Bulletin as well as Répertoire
chimie pure and Répertoire de chimie appliquée,
which include abstracts.
In a published outline of a chemistry course,
clarifies the calculation of atomic weights, then a highly contentious
subject, using, in part, the long-neglected hypothesis put forward by
Avagadro in 1811.
Friedrich August Kekule and Archibald Scott Couper
that carbon atoms have the ability to link to one another in chains.
Archibald Scott Couper uses straight lines to
bonds in organic compounds, as is still the practice in most modern
Chemical News and Journal of Physical Science
which is incorporated the Chemical Gazette), the first weekly
periodical, is published in England. It continues to be published until
Congress is held at Karlsruhe Technische Hochschule
the feasibility of establishing a systematic and rational nomenclature
for chemistry. The congress does not reach any conclusive results, but
several key participants return home with Stanislao Cannizzaro's
(1858), which ultimately convinces them of the validity of his scheme
calculating atomic weights.
Friedrich August Kekule, as well as others,
Loschmidt, identifies the ring structure of benzene.
The Deutsche Chemische Gesellschaft is established.
publication of its journal, Berichte.
The Royal Society begins publication of its Catalogue
of Papers in London.
The Rossiskoe Khimicheskoe Obschestvo (now Russko
Obschestvo) is established in Russia. Begins publication of a journal
Julius Lothar Meyer publishes a periodic table
Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev's that he has been developing since 1864.
Societa Chimia Italiana is established in Italy.
of a journal the same year.
Jacobus Henricus van't Hoff and Joseph Achille
that there are two ways of arranging four unlike substituents
around a carbon atom marks the beginning of three-dimensional
structural organic chemistry and the
problem of representing these structures graphically and, much later,
a machine-readable code.
American Chemical Society (ACS) is formed in New
York City and publishes first proceedings.
Kagaku-kai is established in Tokyo and, two years
publishes its journal in Japanese; in 1921, becomes Nippon Kagaku-kai.
ACS commences publication of the Journal of the
Chemical Society, including abstracts of foreign journals.
Index Medicus is first issued by the Library
Surgeon General, U.S. Army; John Shaw Billings, librarian.
Friedrich Beilstein issues
edition of his Handbuch der Organischen Chemie, a ready
to fifteen hundred organic chemicals.
AAAS Committee on Indexing Chemical Literature is
London's Chemical Society publishes Nomenclature
guidelines for establishing systematic and uniform practices.
Lexicon der Kohlenstoffverbindungen, a
to Beilsteins Handbuch der Organischen Chemie, is published by
Journal of the Association of Engineering
begins abstracting section, "Index Notes," covering about one hundred
in the field of engineering. Becomes Engineering Index in 1896.
ACS establishes the Committee on Nomenclature and
First edition of Merck Index is published;
it is just a list of chemicals and drugs available from Merck & Co.
principles that set the stage for an evolving chemical nomenclature.
principles are developed more fully by various forerunners of the
Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), which is founded in 1919.
AAAS Committee on Indexing Chemical Literature
for an international index to the chemical literature.
First U.S. venture in chemical abstracting, the Review
of American Chemical Research (a supplement to the Massachusetts
of Technology's Technology Quarterly), undertaken by Arthur A.
In 1897 it is incorporated into the Journal of the American
Alfred Werner introduces a systematic nomenclature
compounds based on the groups surrounding a central metal atom.
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